Study One: An Introduction to the Book of Amos
- AUTHOR: Amos
- Southerner of Tekoa (south of Jerusalem) (1:1)
- Traveled north to Israel (Bethel) to preach as one called of God (7:15)
- Occupation: sheep breeder, perhaps a master shepherd with others under him; not a prophet until called by the LORD (1:1; 7:14f) and a grower of sycamore figs (7:14)
- Spoke in Bethel (center for idol worship in Israel) and then in Judah under Jeroboam II’s resistance (7)
- May have returned to Judah to write his messages
- DATE: ca. 767-753 B.C.
- King of Judah is Uzziah (Azariah) (790-740)
- King of Israel is Jeroboam II (793-753)
- Within the period of the joint reigns of Uzziah and Jeroboam, possibly ca. 767-753 B.C.
- Two years before the earth quake (1:1 cf. Zech 14:5) it was spoken; it may have been written down later.
- King of Assyria–Adad Nirari III (810-753)
- King of Syria–Hazael
III. HISTORICAL SETTING:
- Judah is under the influence of Jeroboam II of Israel
- Israel appears to be outwardly at its zenith of power. Jeroboam had a successful reign (2 Ki.14:25-28 cf. Amos 6:14)
- Many of the evil characteristics described in Amos 1–2 might better be translated in the present tense of activities then being done.1 They describe Jeroboam II’s rule as painfully disrupted as His lines were breached and the enemies pressed into the territory. Israel was fighting a defensive war against the armies of Syria and Ammon. Both were true.
- Three periods of Israel from Jehu (841-814):
- 839-806 — Engaged in the East and rent by civil dissensions. Could not put pressure on Syria, suffered 30 years of humiliation during Jehu, Jehoahaz, Jehoash2
- 806-782 — Assyria’s king Adad-Nirari III is ruler, and ruled over surrounding states, especially Syria. Israel was protected. Therefore Israel was able to restore some of its borders under Johoash and Jeroboam II. Syria was unable to fight on two borders.3 Israel and Judah restored their borders to almost that of David and Solomon (cf. 2 Ki. 14:25 for the prophecy by Jonah)
- 782-745 — the time when Amos spoke; Assyria was under duress from the northern kingdom of Urartu which pushed Assyria down from the north, northwest, and northeast.4 Syria was freed up to deal with Israel and entered into drawn-out battles to regain Gilead, and Bashan.5
- The people became arrogant during the northern nation’s period of prosperity resulting in injustice, greed, neglect of the poor, persecution of the poor, and formalistic religion.6
- AUDIENCE: Primarily northern Israel (1:1; 7:15), but there are some references to southern Judah as well (2:4-5; 3:1; 6:1).
- PURPOSES FOR THE BOOK:
- To describe how the Lord of the universe will not only come to judge the nations for their evil, but will also come to judge Israel for her breach of covenant
- To expose Israel’s breach of covenant through their social oppression of the people, empty religious ritual, and arrogant self-confidence
- To proclaim a time of restoration and blessing after judgment under a revitalized Davidic dynasty
Amos condemns them for a lifestyle of:
- Rejecting God, ignoring the prophets and defiling the Nazirites
- Unjust and excessive luxury
- Enslaving the poor and financially oppressing them
- Being incredibly greedy and predatory, cheating people in business
- Idolatry, the occult and false worship
- Being even worse that the surrounding Gentile nations
- Not knowing how to do right, having no fear or respect of God
- Substituting worship for ethical obedience
Study Two - Amos 1:1 to 2:3 The Surrounding Nations
ANGELS IN THE EPISTLES
Study Eight - Amos Chapter 7 – The Plumb Line of The Lord
PNEUMATOLOGY : Holy Spirit
Study Three - Amos 2:4-16 - Judgment on Judah and Israel
The Holy Spirit, the Emotional Life of Jesus, and the Emotional Life of the Spirit-Filled Believer.
ANGELS IN THE REVELATION PART ONE: THEIR WORK
SOTERIOLOGY : Salvation
SATAN AND THE EVIL ANGELS
Study Ten - Amos Chapter Nine – Destruction and Restoration
DEMONOLOGY : Satan And Demons
BIBLICAL REFERENCES TO ANGELS : REFERENCE TO ANGELS
Study Five - Amos Chapter 4 –Yet You Did Not Return to Me!
ACTIVATING THE ANGELS
ANGELS IN THE BOOK OF ACTS